Phi Empirical. The graphs are generated by calculating Φ Empirical, System Difference and density in 5,000 random, weakly connected, normalized networks (n = 9) sampled uniformly over density such that the normalized graphs would only have one weight value (see Methods, System Difference and Phi Empirical). (A) Φ Empirical plotted against SD. (B) Φ Empirical plotted against density. Φ Empirical has a time lag parameter over which to calculate information integration. The results above are typical for all time lags attempted (one to four as well as the sum of the Φs over multiple time lags).