The influence of gap junction between Golgi cells (GoCs) on the responses of the network in the feedfoward loop configuration, with mossy fiber (MF) input at 5 Hz. (A) Feedforward loop configuration: network without parallel fiber (PF) input to GoCs. (B) Raster plot (top panel) and population spike timing histogram (PSTH) (bottom panel) of the GoC layer with (red) and without (blue) gap junctions. Each dot in the raster plot is a spike. MF mean firing rates (MFRs) inputs at 5 Hz were turned on at the instant of 1000 ms. (C) Same as (B) but for the GC layer.