Quantifying permutation symmetry breaking in the EN model. (a-d) g(α) (red traces) and the 'permutation symmetrized' function g
(α) = 1/2(g(α) + g(α + π)) (blue traces, see Equation (35)) for σ/Λ = 0.1 and 0.3 and s4 = 6 and 100. (e) Permutation symmetry parameter d (Equation 36) in the EN model with fixed retinotopy. Permutation symmetry breaking is largest for σ/Λ ≈ 0.25 and small s4. In the limit s4 → ∞, permutation symmetry is restored.